Question 46 - 55. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the best answer to each of the following questions.
The atmosphere of Venus is quite different from ours. Measurements taken from the Earth show a high concentration of carton dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus. In fact, carbon dioxide makes up 96 percent of Venus’ atmosphere; nitrogen makes up almost all the rest. The Earth’s atmosphere, by comparison, is mainly nitrogen, with a fair amount of oxygen as well. Carbon dioxide makes up less than 0.1 percent of the terrestrial atmosphere.
The surface pressure of Venus’ atmosphere is 90 times higher than the pressure of the Earth’s atmosphere, as a result of the large amount of carbon dioxide in the former. Throughout Earth’s history, carbon dioxide on Earth has mixed with rain to dissolve rocks; the dissolved rock and carbon dioxide eventually flow into oceans, where they precipitate to form new terrestrial rocks, often with the help of life-forms. If this carbon dioxide were released from the Earth’s rocks, along with lower carbon dioxide trapped in seawater, our atmosphere would become as dense and have as high a pressure as that of Venus. Venus, slightly closer to the Sun than Earth and thus hotter, had no oceans in which carbon dioxide could dissolve or life to help take up the carbon.
Also, Venus has probable lost almost all the water it ever had. Since Venus is closer to the Sun than Earth is, its lower atmosphere was hotter even early on. The result was that more water vapor went into its upper atmosphere, where solar ultraviolet rays broke in up into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen, a light gas, escaped easily; the oxygen has combined with other gasses or with iron on Venus’ surface.
Studies from the Earth show that the clouds on Venus are primarily composed of droplets of sulfuric acid, with water droplets mixed in. Sulfuric acid may sound strange as a cloud constituent, but the Earth too has a significant layer of sulfuric acid droplets in its stratosphere. However, the water in the lower layers of the Earth’s atmosphere, circulating because of weather, washes the sulfur compounds out of these layers, whereas Venus has sulfur compounds in the lower layers of its atmosphere in addition to those in its clouds.
46. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A. Atmospheric differences between Venus and Earth.
B. How Venus lost the water it once had.
C. The influence of the Sun on Venus.
D. A comparison between the upper and the lower atmosphere on Venus.
47. In terms of their amount in the atmosphere, what is the proportion of carbon dioxide on Earth and on Venus?
A. Almost 1000.
B. Almost 100.
C. Almost 1/3.
D. Almost 90.
48. What are the gases that Venus’s atmosphere mostly consists of?
A. Carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen.
B. Carbon dioxide and oxygen.
C. Nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen.
D. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
49. What can possibly be the reason that there is so much carbon dioxide in Venus’ atmosphere?
A. There is no oxygen.
B. The temperatures are too high.
C. There is no water and life on Venus.
D. There is no oxygen and water on Venus.
50. What may be the explanation of low air pressure on earth?
A. Oxygen readily available.
B. Water evaporating.
C. Carbon dioxide dissolved in water.
51. According to the passage, what causes Venus’ surface pressure?
A. Dissolving rocks.
B. Frequent heavy rain.
C. Its distance from the Sun.
D. The composition of its atmosphere.
52. What is the writer’s purpose with the sentence “If this carbon dioxide were released from the Earth’s rocks,...”?
A. To present a situation that is contrary to fact.
B. To convince readers that a certain process in harmless.
C. To describe an event that took place long ago.
D. To explain what is likely to happen in the future.
53. What may cause the disappearance of the water on Venus?
A. The prevalent amount of carbon dioxide
B. High temperature and the Sun’s ultraviolet rays
C. High temperature and low surface pressure
D. High surface pressure and low temperature.
54. According to the passage, which of the following has resulted from processes involving Earth’s carbon dioxide?
A. A steady increase in the density of Earth’s atmosphere.
B. An increase rate at which rock dissolves.
C. The accumulation of carbon dioxide in Earth’s rock.
D. The expansion of Earth’s oceans.
55. According to the passage, what happened to oxygen on Venus?
A. Most of it was absorbed into rocks.
B. It was released from water and then combined with other substances.
C. It chemically combined with hydrogen from atmospheric water.
D. It has been slowly replacing carbon dioxide in Venus’ upper atmosphere.
Question 56 - 65. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the best answer to each of the following questions.
Color in textiles is produced by dyeing, by printing, or by painting. Until the nineteenth century, all dyes were derived from vegetable or, more rarely, animal or mineral sources. Since madder plants could be grown practically everywhere, the roots of some species of the madder plant family were used from the earliest period to produce a whole range of reds. Red animal dyes, derived from certain species of scale insects, were also highly value from ancient times through the Middle Ages. Blues were obtained from woad, a plant common in Europe and also used in the Near East from the beginning of the Christian era Before the first, nonfading “solid” green was invented in early nineteenth century, greens were achieved by the overdyeing or overprinting of yellow and blue. However, yellow dyes, whether from weld or some other plant sources such as saffron or turmeric, invariably fade or disappear. This accounts for the bluish tinge of what were once bright greens in, for example, women tapestry.
The range of natural colors was hugely expanded and, indeed, superseded by the chemical dyes developed during the eighteen hundreds. By 1900, a complete range of synthetic colors had been evolved, many of which reached a standard of resistance to fading from exposure to light and to washing that greatly exceeded that of natural dyestuffs. Since then, petroleum industry has added many new chemicals, and from these, other types of dyestuffs have been developed. Much of the research in dyes was stimulated by the peculiarities of some of the new synthetic fibers- Acetate rayon, for example, seemed at first to have no affinity for dyes and a new range of dyes had to be developed; nylon and Terylene presented similar problems.
The printing of textiles has involved a number of distinct methods. With the exception of printing patterns directly onto the cloth, whether by block, roller, or screen, all of these are based on dyeing; that is, immersion of the fabric in a dye bath.
56. The passage mainly discusses the __________ .
A. Development of synthetic colors for textiles during the nineteenth century
B. Advantages of chemical dyes over dyes derived from plants and animals
C. Differences between dyeing textiles and printing items
D. History of the use of natural and chemical dyes to color textiles
57. According to the passage, what was the source of most textile dyes that were used before the nineteenth century?
58. What was the advantage of using madder plants for different shades of red?
A. It was possible to cultivate madder plants in almost every location.
B. Madder plants produced brighter colors than other plant sources.
C. Plant sources produced more lasting colors than other plant sources.
D. Dyes derived from the madder plants were easier to work with than other dyes.
59. One disadvantage of green dyes before the nineteenth century was ___________.
A. The yellow dyes were expensive
B. They lost their original color
C. The blue dyes involved lost their color
D. The final color varied
60. The green areas in women tapestries developed a bluish tinge because ___________.
A. A darker color, like blue, dominates a light color, like yellow
B. Light changed some of the green dye used in the tapestries to blue
C. The yellow dye that was used in the tapestries had faded
D. The dyes used to color woven tapestries were made from minerals
61. Red dyes came mostly from ___________.
B. plants and insects
62. How did chemical dyes compare to natural dyes?
A. The chemical dyes had less attractive colors.
B. The chemical dyes were less easy to use.
C. The chemical dyes lost their brightness more quickly when exposed to light.
D. The chemical dyes held up better after washing.
63. The chemical dyes keep color because they are less prone to _____________.
64. According to the passage, what problem led to the development of the new dyes after 1900?
A. Previously developed dyes did not work on new types of fibers
B. Dyes derived from petroleum caused damage to new synthetic fibers
C. New synthetic fibers lost required brighter colors than natural fibers did.
D. New fabrics easily lost their colors when washed.
65. What does the author mean by “block, roller, or screen”?
A. To give examples of textile printing techniques that are based on dyeing.
B. To argue that all methods printing patterns onto textiles involve dyeing.
C. To emphasize the variety of special tools used the process of dyeing textiles.
D. To give examples of textile printing techniques that do not involve dyeing.
Question 66-70. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to show the underlined part that needs correction.
66. Lunar eclipses happen only if the Moon is full, but they do not occur at an every full Moon.
67. A dancing is the oldest and liveliest of the arts.
68. Scientists are still uncertain of what the universe originated millions of years.
69. I would have gone with him to Washington except I had had no time.
70. He looked like he had been in some strange land where age advanced at a double pace.