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chuyển câu trực tiếp thành câu gián tiếp

Thảo luận trong 'Ngữ pháp' bắt đầu bởi baby_12, 5 Tháng tư 2009.

CHIA SẺ TRANG NÀY

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  1. baby_12

    baby_12 Guest

    Đặt chỗ PEN 2017 - Cập nhật theo mọi thay đổi của kỳ thi THPT QG

    Đăng ký gia nhập BQT DIỄN ĐÀN


    Các bạn cho mình công thức chuyển câu trực tiếp sáng câu gián tiếp ( câu tường thuật) nhé!.......


    P.S: chú ý cách gõ dấu nhé!
     
    Sửa lần cuối bởi BQT: 30 Tháng mười 2013
  2. thanhthuytu

    thanhthuytu Guest


    Có ở mục chú ý đó, bạn vào đó xem tham khảo đi!!!!!
     
  3. wolf95

    wolf95 Guest


    Câu tường thuật (Reported Speech)
    a/ Định nghĩa : Câu tường thuật (hay còn gọi là câu nói gián tiếp) là cách nói mà ta dùng để tường thuật hay kể lại cho ai đó nghe những gì người khác nói hoặc đang nói.
    b/ Cách chuyển từ câu nói trực tiếp sang câu tường thuật : Tùy theo 4 dạng câu nói mà người ta có cách chuyển khác nhau.
    + Trường hợp câu nói trực tiếp là câu phát biểu (Statements)
    CÁCH CHUYỂN :
    _ Lặp lại động từ giới thiệu SAY hoặc chuyển sang TELL, nếu SAY có thể bổ túc từ gián tiếp ( dạng SAY TO + Object )
    _ Dùng liên từ THAT thay cho dấu hai chấm ( , sau đó bỏ dấu ngoặc kép
    _ Chuyển đại từ nhân xưng và tính từ sở hữu , nếu cần thiết tùy theo nghĩa của câu
    Ví dụ :
    I ---> He/She ; me---> his , her
    Nếu động từ giới thiệu tỏn câu nói trực tiếp ở dạng quá khứ thì khi chuyển sang câu tường thuật , động tù trong câu tường thuật được thay đổi theo quy luật sau :
    CÁCH NÓI TRỰC TIẾP
    1.Hiện tại đơn (Simple Present)
    2.Hiện tại tiếp diễn (Present Continuous)
    3.Hiện tại hoàn thành (Present Perfect)
    4.Quá khứ đơn ( Simple Past)
    5.Quá khứ tiếp diễn (Past Continuous)
    6.Tương lai đơn (Simple Future)
    7.Tương lai hoàn thành (Future Perfect)
    8.Điều kiện ở hiện tại ( Present Conditional)
    CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT
    1.Quá khứ đơn (Simple Past)
    2.Quá khứ tiếp diễn (Past Continuous)
    3.Quá khứ hoàn thành (Past Perfect)
    4.Quá khứ hoàn thành (Past Perfect)
    5.Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn ( Past perfect Continuous)
    6.Tương lai ở quá khứ ( Future in the past : Would + V)
    7. Điều kiện hoàn thành ( Perfect Conditional )
    8. Điều kiện hoàn thành ( Perfect Conditional )
    Tùy theo số mà chuyển đổi : 1--1 , 2---2 ,......
    * Lưu ý : Quá khứ hoàn thành (Past Perfect ) , và điều kiện hoàn thành ( Perfect Conditional) vẫn ko đổi.
    _ Chuyển trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn và thời gian theo quy luật

    Chú ý : Màu nâu là dùng cho Câu nói trực tiếp màu đỏ là câu tường thuật
    This ----> That
    These ---- > Those
    Now ----> Then
    Here ----> There
    Today ----> That day
    Tomorrow ---> The next day / The following day / The day after
    Yesterday ----> The day before / The previous day
    Next week , month year ----> The following week / month / Year
    Last night / week / month /year -----> The night/week / year before hoặc the previous night/ week / month / year
    Tonight ----> that night
    Ago ----> earlier / Before ( Ex : 2 days ago ----> 2 days before / earlier )
    _ Các động từ của mệnh đề chính trong câu tường thuật là : SAY , TELL , ANNOUNCE , INFORM , DECLARE , ASURE , REMARK , DENY.....
    Ex : He said : "I want to go to see An tomorrow"
    => he said that he wanted to go to see An the next day
    ( Anh ấy nói rằng anh ta muốn đi thăm An ngày hôm sau )
    + Chú ý :
    _Sau động từ TELL bao giờ cũng phải có 1 bổ túc từ trực tiếp ( TELL + Object)
    Ex : An said to me : " I will buy a car"
    => An told me that he would buy a new car
    ( An bảo tôi rằng anh ta muốn mua 1 chiếc xe mới )

    _ Trong câu tường thuật , THAT có thể được bỏ đi
    Ex : She said : "I have worked here for one year"
    => She said ( that ) she had worked there for one year
    ( Cô ấy nói cô ấy đã làm việc ở đó được 1 năm )
    Thường thì dùng THAT sẽ hay hơn
    _ Trong câu tường thuật , động từ khiếm khuyết MUST thường đc chuyển thành HAD TO , NEEDN'T chuyển thành DID NOT HAVE TO , nhưng MÚT , SHOULD , SHOULDN'T khi chỉ sự cấm đoán , lời khuên vẫn được giữ nguyên
    VD : 1. His father said to him : "You must study harder"
    => Hisfather told him that he had to study harder
    ( Bố cậu ta bảo rằng cậu ta phải học chăm hơn )
    2. Hoa said :"You needn't water the flowers because it rained last night"
    => Hoa said that he didn't have to water the flowers because it had rained the day before
    (Hoa nói rằng anh ấy ko cần phải tối hoa vì đã mưa vào tối hôm trước)
    3. The doctor said to Nam : "You should stay in bed"
    => The doctor told Nam that he should stay in bed
    ( Vị bác sĩ bảo Nam rằng cậu ta nên ở trên giường)
    _ Nếu câu nói trực tiếp diễn tả 1 sự thật hiển nhiên thì khi chuyển sang câu tường thuật động từ vẫn ko đổi .
    Ex : The professor said : "The moon revolves around the earth"
    => The professor said that the moon revolves around the earth
    ( Vị giáo sư nói rằng mặt trăng quay xung quanh trái đất)
    _ Nếu động từ giới thiệu trong câu nói trực tiếp ở thì hiện tại hoặc tương lai ( SAY/WILL SAY , HAVE SAID ...) thì động từ trong câu tường thuật và các trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn khi được đổi sang vẫn ko đổi
    Ex : She says : "The train will leave here in 5 minutes"
    => She says that the train will leave there in 5 minutes
    _ Vài cách chuyển đại từ nhân xưng và tính từ sỡ hữu từ câu nói trực tiếp sang câu tường thuật .
    CÂU NÓI TRỰC TIẾP
    I
    We
    Me / You
    Us
    Mine
    Ours
    My
    Our
    Myself

    CÂU NÓI TƯỜNG THUẬT
    He /She
    They
    Him /Her
    Them
    His / Hers
    Theirs
    His / Her
    Their
    Himself / herself
    + Trường hợp câu nói trực tiếp là câu hỏi (Questions) :
    Cách chuyển
    _ Đổi động từ giói thiệu SAY thành ASK ( hoặc WONDER , WANT TO KNOW...)sau đó thêm bổ túc từ sau động từ ASK nếu cần thiết ( EX : Ask me , ask Tom...)
    _ Bỏ dấu 2 chấm , dấu ngoặc kép và dấu chấm hỏi .
    _ Lặp lại từ nghi vấn ( WHO , WHEN WHAT...) của câu nói trực tiếp . Nếu câu nói trực tiếp ko có từ nghi vấn thì đặt IF hay WHETHER trước chủ ngữ của câu nói được tường thuật lại .
    _ Chuyển đại từ nhân xưng và đại từ sỡ hữu cho phù hợp với ý nghĩa của câu , nếu cần thiết.
    _ Đặt chủ ngữ trước động từ trong câu phát biểu .
    _ Nếu động từ trong câu nói trực tiếp ở dạng quá khứ thì chuyển thì của động từ theo quy luật như trường hợp câu phát biểu .
    _ Chuyển trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn theo quy luật theo trường hợp câu phát biểu .
    Ex :
    1. Dung said :"What did you do yesterday ?"
    = > Dung asked me what I had done the day before
    ( Dung hỏi tôi đã làm gì vào ngày hôm trước )
    2. Dung asked him : "Do you like swimming ?"
    = > Dung asked him if he liked swimming .
    + TRƯỜNG HỢP CÂU NÓI TRỰC TIẾP LÀ CÂU CẦU KHIẾN (COMMAND)
    *Cách chuyển
    _ Đổi động từ giới thiệu sang TELL (hoặc AsK , ODER , BEG...) tùy theo ý nghĩa của câu ..
    Sau đó thêm bổ túc từ vào sau TELL (hoặc AsK , ODER , BEG...) .
    Ex : Ask him , Order the soldier, tell me .
    Bỏ dấu 2 chấm , dấu ngoặc kép , dấu chấm than và từ PLEASE ( nếu có)
    _ Nếu câu cầu khiến ở thể khẳng định , ta đổi động từ sang nguyên mẫu có TO theo mẫu :
    TELL / ASK / ...+ PRONOUN / NOUN / + TO -INFINITIVE
    _ Nếu câu cầu khiến ở thể khẳng định , ta đổi động từ theo mẫu
    TELL / ASK / ...+ PRONOUN / NOUN / + NOT +TO -INFINITIVE
    _ Đổi đại từ nhân xưng , tính từ sỡ hữu , trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn như các trường hợp trước nếu cần thiết .
    * Ghi chú :
    + Pronoun : đại từ
    + Noun : danh từ
    +To -infinitive : động từ nguyên mẫu có TO ( Ex : to do , to complain )
    Ex :
    1/ She said : "Close the door and go away !"
    = > She told me to close the door and go away.
    ( Cô ấy bảo tôi đóng cửa lại và đi chỗ khác)
    2/ Nam said to his brother : "Don't turn of the radio"
    = > Nam told his brother not to turn of the radio
    ( Nam bảo em trai cậu ấy đừng tắt radio )
    3/ The commandor said to his soldier : "Shoot !"
    The commandor ordered his soldier to shoot.
    cái này tớ tìm trên google tham khảo đc thì dùng
     
  4. trung2409

    trung2409 Guest


    uhm cảm ơn nhé, hay lắm.
    có khi chả nhớ nổi hết, cứ nhớ như tớ thường thị hạ 1 thì, trừ câu cung cấp thông tin.
    Với câu hỏi WH thì các từ what, where, ... vai trò như liên từ giữa câu chính và câu mô tả.
    Với câu mệnh lệnh thì nhớ cấu trúc to và not to
    và nhớ trạng từ thời gian fải chuyển cho fù hợp.
     


  5. Indirect speech
    Indirect speech: statements
    PEG 307-8,313
    1 Students are asked to assume that these sentences are spoken and reported on different days. This will mean that a sentence such as:
    He said, 1 am coming tomorrow,' will become: He said that he was coming the next day, and so on.
    This applies to all the exercises on indirect speech in this book.
    2 With indirect speech, when the person addressed is mentioned, tell is more usual than say to as an introductory verb. For example:
    He told me that he was going away the next day is more usual than
    He said to me that he was going away the next day.
    Put the following into indirect speech.
    1 1 have something to show you,' I said to her.
    2 'Nothing grows in my garden. It never gets any sun,' she said.
    3 I'm going away tomorrow, mother,' he said.
    4 I've been in London for a month but so far I haven't had time to visit the Tower,' said Rupert.
    5 It isn't so foggy today as it was yesterday,' I remarked.
    6 'The new underpass is being officially opened the day after tomorrow, 'said the BBC
    announcer.
    7 'We have moved into our new flat. We don't like it nearly so much as our last one,' said
    my aunt.
    8 'We have a lift but very often it doesn't work,' they said.
    9 'From one of the windows of my flat I can see the Eiffel Tower,' he said.
    10 I've no idea what the time is but I'll dial 8081 and find out,' said his daughter.
    11 He said, 'My wife has just been made a judge.'
    12 I'll come with you as soon as I am ready,' she replied.
    13 I have a German lesson this afternoon and I haven't done my homework yet,' said the small boy.
    14 If you let the iron get too hot you will scorch your clothes,' I warned her.
    15 'You haven't given me quite enough. The bill is for Ј14 and you've paid me only Ј13,'
    he pointed out.
    16 Ann said, 'Englishmen make good husbands because they are nearly always willing to
    help in the house.'
    17 Mary answered, I like men to be useful but I don't like them to be too domesticated. I
    prefer them to keep out of the kitchen altogether. Men look silly in aprons anyway.'
    18 Motoring report: The new Rolls Royce runs so quietly that all you can hear is the
    ticking of the clock.
    Managing director of the Rolls Royce company: In that case we'll have to do
    something about the clock.
    19 1 don't know what to do with all my plums. I suppose I'll have to make jam. The
    trouble is that none of us eats jam,' she said.
    20 'We like working on Sundays because we get double pay,' explained the builders.
    21 He said, I am quite a good cook and I do all my own washing and mending too.'
    22 'You can keep that one if you like, Joan,' he said. I've got plenty of others.'
    23 I'm going fishing with mother this afternoon,' said the small boy, 'and we are going into
    the garden now to dig for worms.' (Omit now).
    24 'You've got my umbrella,' I said crossly. 'Yours is in your bedroom.'
    25 I know exactly what they said,' the private detective explained to his client, 'because I
    bugged their phone.'
    26 I'll sit up till she comes in, but I hope she won't be late,' he said.
    27 If you give me some wire, I'll hang that picture for you,' said my cousin.
    28 I have a Turkish bath occasionally, but it doesn't seem to make any difference to my
    weight.,' she said.
    29 This is quite a good model, madam. I use one of these myself,' said the salesman.
    30 'My new house is supposed to be haunted, but so far I haven't seen any ghosts,' she
    said.
    31 The advertisement said, If you answer the questions correctly you may win Ј100.'
    32 If I press my ear against the wall, I can hear what the people in the next flat are saying,'
    he said.
     

  6. Indirect speech: questions
    PEG 317

    Put the following into indirect speech. The first ten questions require no change of order:
    He said, 'What is happening?'
    He asked what was happening.
    1 'What happened to Mr Budd?' said one of the men.
    2 'Which of his sons inherited his estate?' asked another.
    3 'Who is going to live in the big house?' enquired a third.
    4 'What will happen to his racehorses?' asked someone else.
    5 'Which team has won?' asked Ann.
    6 'Which team won the previous match?' said Bill.
    7 'Who is playing next week?' he asked.
    8 'Who will be umpiring that match?' asked Tom.
    9 'Who wants a lift home?' said Ann.
    10 'Who has just dropped a Ј10 note?' I asked.
    11 'Where is the ticket office?' asked Mrs Jones.
    12 'What shall I do with my heavy luggage?' she said. (Use should.)
    13 'What platform does the train leave from?' asked Bill.
    14 'When does it arrive in York?' he asked.
    15 'When was the timetable changed?' I asked.
    16 'Why has the 2.30 train been cancelled?' said Ann.
    17 'How much does a day return to Bath cost?' Mrs Jones asked.
    18 'Why does the price go up so often?' she wondered.
    19 'How can I get from the station to the airport?' said Bill.
    20 'When are you coming back?' I asked them.
    21 Is a return ticket cheaper than two singles?' said my aunt.
    22 'Do puppies travel free?' asked a dog owner.
    23 'Can I bring my dog into the compartment with me?' she asked.
    24 'Does this train stop at York?' asked Bill.
    25 'Can you telephone from inter-city trains?' said the businessman.
    26 'Does the 2.40 have a restaurant car?' he enquired.
    27 'Can you get coffee on the train?' asked my aunt.
    28 'Do they bring it round on a trolley?' she said.
    29 'Are there smoking compartments?' said the man with the pipe.
    30 'Have you reserved a seat?' I asked him.

    Extra exercise: read the last twenty questions, using one of the following prefaces:
    I wonder/I'd like to know/Do you know?/Have you any idea?/Can you tell me?
    11 'Do you know where the ticket office is?'
    12 'I wonder what I should do with my heavy luggage
     

  7. Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice expressed by object + infinitive
    PEG 320
    Indirect commands, requests, etc. are normally expressed by tell, order, ask, beg, advise, remind, warn, etc., with the person addressed and the infinitive. Change the following direct commands into indirect commands using this construction. Remember that the
    person addressed is often not mentioned in a direct command:
    He said, 'Go away',
    but must be mentioned in an indirect command:
    He told me ( Tom/us/them, etc. ) to go away.
    1 'Switch off the TV,' he said to her.
    2 'Shut the door, Tom,' she said.
    3 'Lend me your pen for a moment,' I said to Mary.
    4 'Don't watch late-night horror movies,' I warned them.
    5 'Don't believe everything you hear,' he warned me.
    6 'Please fill up this form,' the secretary said.
    7 'Don't hurry,' I said.
    8 'Don't touch that switch, Mary,' I said.
    9 'Open the safe!' the raiders ordered the bank clerk.
    10 'Please do as I say,' he begged me.
    11 'Help your mother, Peter,' Mr Pitt said.
    12 'Don't make too much noise, children,' he said.
    13 'Do whatever you like,' she said to us.
    14 'Don't miss your train,' she warned them.
    15 'Read it before you sign it,' he said to his client.
    16 'Do sing it again,' he said.
    17 'Don't put your hands near the bars,' the zoo keeper warned us.
    18 'Buy a new car,' I advised him.
    19 'Don't drive too fast,' she begged him.
    20 'Don't lean your bicycles against my windows, boys,' said the shopkeeper.
    21 'Come to the cinema with me,' he asked her.
    22 'Cook it in butter,' I advised her.
    23 'Don't touch the gates, madam,' said the lift operator.
    24 'Don't argue with me,' the teacher said to the boy.
    25 'Pull as hard as you can,' he said to him.
    26 'Send for the Fire Brigade,' the manager said to the porter.
    27 'Don't lend her anything,' he advised us.
    28 'Make a list of what you want,' she told us.
    29 'Look at the paper,' he said to her.
    30 'Stand clear of the doors,' a voice warned the people on the platform.
    31 'See if you can find any mushrooms, children,' she said.
    32 'Don't go alone,' I warned her.
    33 'Pay at the cash desk, 'the shop assistant said to the customer.
    34 The notice said, 'Leave this space clear.'
    35 'Remember to write to your mother, 'I said to them.
    36 'Think well before you answer,' the detective warned her.
     

  8. Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice
    PEG 320
    See note to 90.
    Put the following into indirect speech. In most cases the person addressed must be supplied.
    1 He said, 'Get out of my way.'
    2 'Climb in through the window,' he ordered.
    3 'Please pay at the desk,' said the assistant.
    4 'Open your bag, please,' said the store detective.
    5 'Don't worry about anything, Mrs Pitt,' said her solicitor. 'Leave it all to me.'
    6 'Don't use bent coins in a slot machine,' I warned him.
    7 'Follow that car,' the detective said to the taxi-driver.
    8 'Wash it in lukewarm water,' recommended the assistant.
    9 'Have confidence in me,' urged the doctor.
    10 'Take me up to the 33rd floor,' he said to the liftman.
    11 'Read the notice about life-saving equipment,' advised the air-hostess.
    12 'Always cook with butter,' said her mother, 'never use margarine.'
    13 'Don't argue with your father,' I said.
    14 'Remember to prune the roses,' said my aunt.
    15 'Wait for me at the bridge,' said the young man.
    16 'Don't eat too much starch,' I advised her, 'and avoid fried food.'
    17 'Don't say anything to make her angry,' said my father.
    18 Notice: Please do not ask at the desk for change for telephone calls.
    19 'Don't forget to feed the goldfish,' Mary said to her brother.
    20 'Cross the line by the footbridge,' said the porter.
    21 'Write to me as often as you can,' said his wife.
    22 'Put your pistol on the table,' said the crook.
    23 'Please book me a seat in a non-smoker,' said the traveller.
    24 'Don't forget your sandwiches,' said his mother.
    25 'Don't go near the water, children,' she said.
    26 'Search the house,' said the police sergeant.
    27 'Don't make mountains out of molehills,' he said.
    28 'Put down that gun. It's loaded,' she warned.
     

  9. Indirect speech: questions, requests, invitations, offers, advice
    PEG 284-7, 318-20, 323
    Remember that Why don't you? can be an ordinary question or advice/suggestion.
    Treat it here as advice.
    Put the following into indirect speech.
    1 'Could you get there and back in one day?' I asked. (I asked if he . . .)
    2 1 can't open this tin,' said Ann. 'Shall I do it for you?' said Tom.
    3 'Could you translate this for me, please?' I asked the official.
    4 'Shall we ever meet again?' he wondered.
    5 'Will you be here tomorrow?' she asked. 'Yes,' I answered.
    6 'Could I lose five kilos in a week?' said the fat woman. 'No,' said the doctor.
    7 'Will you have a drink?' he said.
    8 'Why don't you install gas central heating?' said the advertisement. (urge)
    9 'Will you read this very carefully, please?' he said to me.
    10 'Shall I tell him what happened?' she asked me.
    11 'Wouldn't you like to look ten years younger?' said the hairdresser.
    12 I'm going to Brighton tomorrow,' said Ann.
    'So am I,' said Tom. 'Would you like a lift?' (Tom said he was too and...)
    13 'Can I have a sweet?' said the small boy.
    14 'Can we stay up till the end of the programme?' said the children.
    15 'Could I have the weekend off?' he asked his boss.
    16 'Could I leave early on Friday?' he said.
    17 'Why don't you like pop music?' the teenagers asked him.
    18 'Why don't you take up the oboe again?' said my friends, (advise)
    19 'Where shall I hang my new picture?' he said. 'Would it look well over the mantelpiece?'
    20 'What shall I do if the car won't start?' I said.
    21 'Have you got enough money? Shall I lend you some?' said my friend.
    22 'Will you be able to guide me or shall I bring a map?' I asked.
    23 'You won't forget to shut the door, will you?' she said. (remind)
    24 'Would you like to see over the house?' I asked her.
    25 'Would you like to peel the potatoes?' said Ann, handing me a knife.
    26 I've got two tickets. Would you like to come with me?' he said.
    27 'Can you use a word processor?' he asked. 'No,' I said.
    28 'Would you mind living by yourself for six months?' they asked.
    29 'Would you mind paying cash?' said my landlady when I took out my cheque-book.
    30 'Why don't you trust him?' I asked Ann.
    1 never trust left-handed men,' she answered.
     

  10. Indirect speech: commands and questions with if- clauses and time clauses
    PEG 229, 320-1
    Questions with if- clauses and time clauses should be reported with the if- clause or time clause last.
    'When/If I see him, what shall I say?' she asked.
    She asked what she should say when/if she saw him.
    Commands can be reported by tell + infinitive + if- clause/time clause.
    But sometimes (as in nos. 5 and 10 below) this would produce a rather clumsy sentence. It is then advisable to use say/said that + if- clause/time clause + be/should + infinitive:
    'If When you see him, ask him to ring me,' she said.
    She said that if/when I saw him I was to ask him to ring her.
    was to expresses a definite command; should implies advice.
    Put the following into indirect speech.
    1 He said, 'When you are at the butcher's remember to get a bone for the dog.'
    2 She said, If you feel faint sit down and put your head between your knees.'
    3 If I find your purse what shall I do with it?' he said.
    'Keep it till you see me again,' I replied.
    4 She said, If he arrives before I get back give him something to drink.'
    5 If anyone rings up,' she said, 'say that I'll be back shortly.'
    6 'When you are driving always look in your driving mirror before turning right,' said my instructor.
    7 'Leave the key under the mat if you go out,' she said.
    8 If you think the room is cold shut the windows,' said my aunt.
    9 If you feel lonely any time ring me up,' he said.
    10 If she doesn't eat meat, offer her an omelette,' he said.
    11 'Get the car off the road on to the verge if you have a puncture.
    Don't leave it on the road,' said my father.
    12 If I am not back by this time tomorrow, take this letter to the police,' he said.
    13 'When you see Mrs Pitt don't forget to thank her,' she said to her husband.
    14 'When the bell rings take the meat out of the oven,' my sister said.
    15 If you are taken prisoner,' said the officer, 'give your name, rank and number but refuse to answer any other questions.'
    16 'When you hear the fire alarm, shut all windows and go downstairs as quickly as possible,' said the schoolmaster.
    17 If the lift should stop between two floors press the emergency button,' he said.
    18 'Before you allow anyone to use the Turkish bath remember to ask him if he has a weak heart,' said the senior attendant.
    19 If the police stop me, what shall I say?' she asked.
    20 'What shall I do if he refuses to let me in?' she said.
    'Write a note and push it under the door,' I said.
    21 'What will happen if the strike continues?' he said.
    22 If it goes on snowing, how'll we get food?' wondered the housewives.
    23 'When the rain stops, can we go out?' said the children.
    24 'When you've completed one section, go on to the next,' the teacher said.
    25 If you don't like the programme, switch to another channel,' I said I to her.
    26 If I lose my traveller's cheques, will the bank repay me?' I asked.
    27 If the noise gets worse, you'd better complain to the police,' he said to me.
    28 'As soon as you find a hotel, ring me and give me the address,' he said.
     

  11. Indirect speech: suggestions
    PEG 289 D, 322
    Part I Write the following in indirect speech, in ordinary narrative form.
    Ann suggested having a party on the next Saturday. Mary agreed and asked who they should invite.
    Report 'Why don't we ... ?' as a suggestion and 'Why don't you . . .?'
    as suggestion or advice. Report 'Why not?' in no. 9 as agreed.
    1 Ann: What about having a party on Saturday?
    2 Mary: Yes, let's. Who shall we invite?
    3 Ann: Let's not make a list. Let's just invite everybody.
    4 Mary: We don't want to do too much cooking, so what about making it a wine and
    cheese party?
    5 Ann: Suppose we ask everybody to bring a bottle?
    6 Mary: Shall we hire glasses from our local wine shop? We haven't many left.
    7 Ann: If it's warm, how about having the party in the garden?
    8 Mary: Why not have a barbecue?
    9 Ann: Why not? We could ask Paul to do the cooking.
    10 Mary: Last time we had a barbecue the neighbours complained about the noise. Shall
    we ask everyone to speak in whispers?
    11 Ann: Suppose we go round to the neighbours and apologize in advance this time?
    12 Mary: Why not invite the neighbours? Then the noise won't matter.
    13 Ann: What a clever idea! Shall we start ringing everyone up tonight?
    14 Mary: What about working out how much it will cost first?
    Part 2 Put the following into indirect speech.
    15 'What about a round-the-world cruise?' suggested Mrs Smith.
    'What about renting a caravan? It's all we can afford,' said her husband.
    16 'Suppose you complain, Ann?' I said. 'The boss is more likely to listen to you than to any of us.'
    17 'You used to be a good tennis player,' she reminded him. 'Why don't you take it up again?'
    18 'Shall we talk there? It's not far,' he said. 'Yes, let's,' I said.
    19 'What about joining a weaving class?' Ann said to me. 'There's one starting soon.'
    20 'Let's organize a sponsored cycle race,' said the children.
    'What about a sponsored silence?' said the teacher with a grin.
    21 'Where shall we meet?' I said. 'What about the hotel?' said Bill.
    22 'Suppose you ring him, Ann, and ask him what he thinks of the idea?' I said.
    23 I'm doing most of the work,' I pointed out. 'What about giving me a hand?'
    24 'Let's leave the washing-up till tomorrow,' he suggested. I hate washing up last thing
    at night.'
    25 'Suppose the children go on an adventure holiday this summer?' suggested the father.
    26 'Why don't you ask them what they'd like to do?' I said.
    27 'Shall we begin training for the next London Marathon?' said Bill.
    'I've no intention of running in marathons,' I said. 'Why don't you ask Paul?'
    28 'Why don't you put an advertisement in the local paper?' they suggested to me.
     

  12. Indirect speech: mixed types
    PEG chapter 31 (note especially 324)
    Put the following into indirect speech, avoiding as far as possible the verbs say, ask and tell and choosing instead from the following:
    accept, accuse, admit, advise, agree, apologize, assure, beg, call (=summon), call (+noun/pronoun+noun), complain, congratulate, deny, exclaim, explain, give, hope, insist, introduce, invite, offer, point out, promise, protest, refuse, remark, remind, suggest, thank, threaten, warn, wish.
    1 He said, 'Don't walk on the ice; it isn't safe.'
    2 'Miss Brown, this is Miss White. Miss White, Miss Brown,' he said.
    3 'Here are the car keys. You'd better wait in the car,' he said to her.
    4 'Please, please, don't tell anyone,' she said.
    I won't, I promise,' I said.
    5 'Would you like my torch?' I said, holding it out.
    'No, thanks,' he said. I have one of my own.' {Omit thanks)
    6 Tom: I'll pay.
    Ann: Oh no, you mustn't!
    Tom: I insist on paying!
    7 'Come in and look round. There's no obligation to buy,' said the shopkeeper.
    8 If you don't pay the ransom, we'll kill the boy,' said the kidnappers.
    9 I won't answer any questions,' said the arrested man.
    10 'He expects a lot of work for very little money,' complained one of the typists.
    'Yes, he does,' agreed the other.
    11 I wish it would rain,' she said.
    12 'You pressed the wrong button,' said the mechanic. 'Don't do it again. You might have a nasty accident.'
    13 'Your weight's gone up a lot!' I exclaimed.
    'I'm afraid it has,' she said sadly.
    14 1 hope you'll have a good journey,' he said. 'Don't forget to send a card when you arrive.'
    15 'Hurrah! I've passed the first exam!' he exclaimed.
    'Congratulations!' I said, 'and good luck with the second.'
    16 'All right, I'll wait a week,' she said. (Omit all right)
    17 'Many happy returns of your birthday!' we said.
    'Thanks,' said the boy.
    18 'Your door is the shabbiest in the street, 'said the neighbour.
    It is,' I said.
    19 'Cigarette?'-
    'Thanks,' I said.
    20 I'll sell the TV set if you keep quarrelling about the programme,' said their mother.
    'No, don't do that! We won't quarrel any more,' said the children.
    21 I'll give you Ј500 to keep your mouth shut,' he said to me.
    22 I'll wait for you, I promise,' he said to me.
    23 I'm sorry I'm late,' she said. 'The bus broke down.'
    24 'You've been leaking information to the Press!' said his colleagues.
    'No, I haven't,' he said. 'Liar!' said Tom.
    25 I'll drop you from the team if you don't train harder,' said the captain.
    26 If the boys do anything clever, you call them your sons,' complained his wife. 'But if they do anything stupid, you call them mine.'
    27 'Let's have a rest,' said Tom.
    'Yes, let's,' said Ann.
    28 'Ugh! There's a slug in my lettuce. Waiter!' he cried.
     
    Sửa lần cuối bởi BQT: 8 Tháng năm 2009
  13. fcoantrai12

    fcoantrai12 Guest


    Commands requests advises:
    S+told/áked/advise+0+ notto/to+V(inf)
     
  14. hoangukraine

    hoangukraine Guest


    the ban co cac dac diem cua Past Perfect/Ma ca Past Perfect Continuous
     


  15. Câu trực tiếp ở thì QKHT/QKHTTD thì ở câu gián tiếp không cần phải lùi thì mà giữ nguyên thì như ở câu trực tiếp, chỉ cần biến đổi một số trạng từ hay phụ từ theo quy tắc là được.

    Past Perfect (thì quá khứ hoàn thành)


    1. FORM:
    S + had + Past Participle


    2. USE:

    a/ Một hành động xảy ra trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ, trong câu thường có có 2 hành động:

    Thì quá khứ hoàn thành thường được dùng với 3 phó từ chỉ thời gian là: after, before và when.

    Form 1: S +simple past + after + S + past perfect
    Ex: + John went home after he had gone to the store.
    + After the committee members had considered the consequences, they voted on the proposal.


    Form 2: S + past perfect + before + S + simple past
    Ex: + John had gone to the store before he went home
    + Before Ali went to sleep, he had called his family.
    + George had worked at the university for forty-five years before he retired.


    Form 3: After + S + past perfect, S + simple past

    Ex: After John had gone to the store, he went home.


    Form 4: Before + S +simple past, + S + past perfect

    Ex: Before John went home, he had gone to the store.


    NOTES:
    -Phó từ when có thể được dùng thay cho after và before trong cả 4 mẫu trên mà không làm thay đổi ý nghĩa của câu. Chúng ta vẫn biết hành động nào xảy ra trước do có sử dụng quá khứ hoàn thành.
    Ex: The police came when the robber had gone away.

    - Mệnh đề có before và after có thể đứng đầu hoặc cuối câu nhưng sau before nhất thiết phải là 1 simple past và sau after nhất thiết phải là 1 past perfect.



    b/ Một trạng thái, hành động đã tồn tại một thời gian trong quá khứ nhưng đã chấm dứt trước hiện tại. Trường hợp này tương tự trường hợp (c) đối với hiện tại hoàn thành nhưng trong trường hợp này không có liên hệ gì với hiện tại.
    Ex: John had lived in New York for ten years before he moved to VN.

    X. Thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn (The Past Perfect Continous)
    1. Diễn tả hành động kéo dài trong quá khứ đến khi có hành động thứ hai xảy ra .
    Đi với "for" + time , before..
    Ex: When I left last job , I had been working there for four years.
    Ex: Before I came , they have been talking with each other.

    Khi sử dụng các thì này có when ta phải thận trọng và dịch câu văn hay dựa vào mệnh đề sau cũng xác định đúng các thì

     
    Sửa lần cuối bởi BQT: 14 Tháng năm 2012
  16. bachhangan

    bachhangan Guest


    ai biết cách chuyển câu trực tiếp thành câu gián tiếp ko
     

  17. um hay quả thật tiện dụng ... phải cảm ơn lớp trưởng nhìu nhỉ,,
     
  18. bocapkhatmau

    bocapkhatmau Guest


    o=>@-)/:):cool::p;):):(:confused::mad::rolleyes::eek::D;):eek::)|:-SSo-+@};-=(:))>-o=>:|b-:)-*
     
  19. bocapkhatmau

    bocapkhatmau Guest


    Indirect speech: questions, requests, invitations, offers, advice
    PEG 284-7, 318-20, 323
    Remember that Why don't you? can be an ordinary question or advice/suggestion.
    Treat it here as advice.
    Put the following into indirect speech.
    1 'Could you get there and back in one day?' I asked. (I asked if he . . .)
    2 1 can't open this tin,' said Ann. 'Shall I do it for you?' said Tom.
    3 'Could you translate this for me, please?' I asked the official.
    4 'Shall we ever meet again?' he wondered.
    5 'Will you be here tomorrow?' she asked. 'Yes,' I answered.
    6 'Could I lose five kilos in a week?' said the fat woman. 'No,' said the doctor.
    7 'Will you have a drink?' he said.
    8 'Why don't you install gas central heating?' said the advertisement. (urge)
    9 'Will you read this very carefully, please?' he said to me.
    10 'Shall I tell him what happened?' she asked me.
    11 'Wouldn't you like to look ten years younger?' said the hairdresser.
    12 I'm going to Brighton tomorrow,' said Ann.
    'So am I,' said Tom. 'Would you like a lift?' (Tom said he was too and...)
    13 'Can I have a sweet?' said the small boy.
    14 'Can we stay up till the end of the programme?' said the children.
    15 'Could I have the weekend off?' he asked his boss.
    16 'Could I leave early on Friday?' he said.
    17 'Why don't you like pop music?' the teenagers asked him.
    18 'Why don't you take up the oboe again?' said my friends, (advise)
    19 'Where shall I hang my new picture?' he said. 'Would it look well over the mantelpiece?'
    20 'What shall I do if the car won't start?' I said.
    21 'Have you got enough money? Shall I lend you some?' said my friend.
    22 'Will you be able to guide me or shall I bring a map?' I asked.
    23 'You won't forget to shut the door, will you?' she said. (remind)
    24 'Would you like to see over the house?' I asked her.
    25 'Would you like to peel the potatoes?' said Ann, handing me a knife.
    26 I've got two tickets. Would you like to come with me?' he said.
    27 'Can you use a word processor?' he asked. 'No,' I said.
    28 'Would you mind living by yourself for six months?' they asked.
    29 'Would you mind paying cash?' said my landlady when I took out my cheque-book.
    30 'Why don't you trust him?' I asked Ann.
    1 never trust left-handed men,' she answered.