Ngoại ngữ [Kỹ năng đọc] Reading Made Easy - Đọc không còn khó nhọc

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IELTS READING (1)
Reading Made Easy đã trở lại rồi đây. Qua các bài viết trước chúng ta đã có cơ hội để luyện tập với dạng multiple choice reading phổ biến trong các đề thi đại học rồi. Với bài viết này, chúng ta hãy cùng tìm hiểu xem IELTS Reading thì có gì khác với Reading trong đề thi đại học nhé.

Đề Reading IELTS sẽ bao gồm 40 câu, làm trong vòng 60 phút. Có rất nhiều loại câu hỏi bạn có thể bắt gặp trong đề thi IELTS Reading:
- Tìm thông tin
- Nối thông tin
- Matching headings (nối tiêu đề)
- Hoàn thành câu
- Hoàn thành đoạn tóm tắt v.v

Vậy mình thường làm IELTS Reading như thế nào?

Cũng như khi làm multiple choice thì mình hay có thói quen đọc câu hỏi trước khi làm bài để ít nhất mình có thể có cái nhìn bao quát về việc mình sẽ cần đọc cái gì. Tiếp theo mình sẽ gạch chân các key words trong câu hỏi rồi mới bắt đầu đọc đoạn văn. Đối với IELTS Academic thì thường sẽ là những đoạn văn học thuật trích từ các báo, tạp chí, tuần san nên thường chúng ta sẽ không phải đọc dạng câu chuyện.

Bây giờ chúng ta sẽ thử sức với đoạn văn nhỏ này nhé

A. The Yoruba people of Nigeria classify their towns in two ways. Permanent towns with their own governments are called “ilu”, whereas temporary settlements, set up to support work in the country are “aba”. Although ilu tend to be larger than aba, the distinction is not one of size, some aba are large, while declining ilu can be small, but of purpose. There is no “typical” Yoruba town, but some features are common to most towns.

B. In the 19th century most towns were heavily fortified and the foundations of these walls are sometimes visible. Collecting tolls to enter and exit through the walls was a major source of revenue for the old town rulers, as were market fees. The markets were generally located centrally and in small towns, while in large towns there were permanent stands made of corrugated iron or concrete. The market was usually next to the local ruler’s palace.

i. Town facilities
ii. Colonisation
iii. Urban divisions
iv. Architectural home styles
v. Types of settlements
vi. Historical foundations
vii. Domestic arrangements
viii. City defenses
ix. The residences of the rulers
x. Government buildings


Cách làm dạng matching headings này sẽ được giới thiệu trong bài đăng T7 tuần sau. Hãy nhấn theo dõi topic để nhận được thông báo nhé.
 

Lolita_(✿˵◕ ɜ◕˵)

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A. The Yoruba people of Nigeria classify their towns in two ways. Permanent towns with their own governments are called “ilu”, whereas temporary settlements, set up to support work in the country are “aba”. Although ilu tend to be larger than aba, the distinction is not one of size, some aba are large, while declining ilu can be small, but of purpose. There is no “typical” Yoruba town, but some features are common to most towns.

B. In the 19th century most towns were heavily fortified and the foundations of these walls are sometimes visible. Collecting tolls to enter and exit through the walls was a major source of revenue for the old town rulers, as were market fees. The markets were generally located centrally and in small towns, while in large towns there were permanent stands made of corrugated iron or concrete. The market was usually next to the local ruler’s palace.

i. Town facilities
ii. Colonisation
iii. Urban divisions
iv. Architectural home styles
v. Types of settlements
vi. Historical foundations
vii. Domestic arrangements
viii. City defenses
ix. The residences of the rulers
x. Government buildings
A-v
B-vi
 

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A-v. The Yoruba people of Nigeria classify their towns in two ways. Permanent towns with their own governments are called “ilu”, whereas temporary settlements, set up to support work in the country are “aba”. Although ilu tend to be larger than aba, the distinction is not one of size, some aba are large, while declining ilu can be small, but of purpose. There is no “typical” Yoruba town, but some features are common to most towns.

B-vi. In the 19th century most towns were heavily fortified and the foundations of these walls are sometimes visible. Collecting tolls to enter and exit through the walls was a major source of revenue for the old town rulers, as were market fees. The markets were generally located centrally and in small towns, while in large towns there were permanent stands made of corrugated iron or concrete. The market was usually next to the local ruler’s palace.

i. Town facilities
ii. Colonisation
iii. Urban divisions
iv. Architectural home styles
v. Types of settlements
vi. Historical foundations
vii. Domestic arrangements
viii. City defenses
ix. The residences of the rulers
x. Government buildings
 

Ninh Hinh_0707

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A. The Yoruba people of Nigeria classify their towns in two ways. Permanent towns with their own governments are called “ilu”, whereas temporary settlements, set up to support work in the country are “aba”. Although ilu tend to be larger than aba, the distinction is not one of size, some aba are large, while declining ilu can be small, but of purpose. There is no “typical” Yoruba town, but some features are common to most towns.

B. In the 19th century most towns were heavily fortified and the foundations of these walls are sometimes visible. Collecting tolls to enter and exit through the walls was a major source of revenue for the old town rulers, as were market fees. The markets were generally located centrally and in small towns, while in large towns there were permanent stands made of corrugated iron or concrete. The market was usually next to the local ruler’s palace.

i. Town facilities
ii. Colonisation
iii. Urban divisions
iv. Architectural home styles
v. Types of settlements-> A
vi. Historical foundations-> B
vii. Domestic arrangements
viii. City defenses
ix. The residences of the rulers
x. Government buildings
 

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A. The Yoruba people of Nigeria classify their towns in two ways. Permanent towns with their own governments are called “ilu”, whereas temporary settlements, set up to support work in the country are “aba”. Although ilu tend to be larger than aba, the distinction is not one of size, some aba are large, while declining ilu can be small, but of purpose. There is no “typical” Yoruba town, but some features are common to most towns. ➾ v

B.
In the 19th century most towns were heavily fortified and the foundations of these walls are sometimes visible. Collecting tolls to enter and exit through the walls was a major source of revenue for the old town rulers, as were market fees. The markets were generally located centrally and in small towns, while in large towns there were permanent stands made of corrugated iron or concrete. The market was usually next to the local ruler’s palace. ➾vi
 

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IELTS READING (2)


Trước khi đến với nội dung về cách làm dạng matching headings thì chúng mình hãy cùng xem đáp án của bài tập lần trước nhé.

A. The Yoruba people of Nigeria classify their towns in two ways. Permanent towns with their own governments are called “ilu”, whereas temporary settlements, set up to support work in the country are “aba”. Although ilu tend to be larger than aba, the distinction is not one of size, some aba are large, while declining ilu can be small, but of purpose. There is no “typical” Yoruba town, but some features are common to most towns. - v

B.
In the 19th century most towns were heavily fortified and the foundations of these walls are sometimes visible. Collecting tolls to enter and exit through the walls was a major source of revenue for the old town rulers, as were market fees. The markets were generally located centrally and in small towns, while in large towns there were permanent stands made of corrugated iron or concrete. The market was usually next to the local ruler’s palace. - vi


Với mình cách làm dạng matching headings cũng gần giống như cách chúng ta làm phần main idea ở multiple choice reading nhưng có những điều sau cần lưu ý:

- Hãy chú ý vào các câu đầu hoặc cuối đoạn vì đó có thể là topic sentence. Nhưng cũng không có nghĩa là chúng ta chỉ đọc những câu đó thôi mà bỏ qua những câu khác nhé, bạn không cần đọc đầy đủ từng chữ nhưng cần đọc lướt để nắm được ý của đoạn văn.
- Chú ý đến các từ đồng nghĩa, thường thì các từ xuất hiện trong heading sẽ ít khi lặp lại trong đoạn văn nên hãy chú ý đến những từ đồng nghĩa với nó.
- Bởi vì heading thường ngắn nên có thể gây rối nên nếu có những heading nào bạn thấy có nghĩa gần giống nhau thì hãy đặt chúng cạnh đoạn văn và đối chiếu lại nhiều lần

Bây giờ hãy thử sức với bài tập này nhé

A
Water is the giver and, at the same time, the taker of life. It covers most of the surface of the planet we live on and features large in the development of the human race. On present predictions, it is an element that is set to assume even greater significance.
B
Throughout history, water has had a huge impact on our lives. Humankind has always had a rather ambiguous relationship with water, on the one hand receiving enormous benefit from it, not just as a drinking source, but as a provider of food and a means whereby to travel and to trade. But forced to live
close to water in order to survive and to develop, the relationship has not always been peaceful or beneficial. In fact, it has been quite the contrary. What has essentially been a necessity for survival has turned out in many instances to have a very destructive and life-threatening side.
C
Through the ages, great floods alternated with long periods of drought have assaulted people and their environment, hampering their fragile fight for survival. The dramatic changes to the environment that are now a feature of our daily news are not exactly new: fields that were once lush and fertile are now barren; lakes and rivers that were once teeming with life are now long gone; savannah has been turned to desert. What perhaps is new is our naive wonder when faced with the forces of nature.
D
Today, we are more aware of climatic changes around the world. Floods in far-flung places are instant news for the whole world. Perhaps these events make us feel better as we face the destruction of our own property by floods and other natural disasters.

List of Headings
i Environmental change has always been with us
ii The scarcity of water
iii Rivers and seas cause damage
iv Should we be despondent? Or realistic?
v Disasters caused by the climate make us feel better
vi Water, the provider of food
vii What is water?
viii How to solve flooding
ix Far-flung flooding
x Humans’ relationship with water
xi The destructive force of water in former times
xii Flooding in the future
xiii A pessimistic view of the future
 
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ĐÁP ÁN BÀI TẬP 2/4


A - vii
Water is the giver and, at the same time, the taker of life. It covers most of the surface of the planet we live on and features large in the development of the human race. On present predictions, it is an element that is set to assume even greater significance.
B - x
Throughout history, water has had a huge impact on our lives. Humankind has always had a rather ambiguous relationship with water, on the one hand receiving enormous benefit from it, not just as a drinking source, but as a provider of food and a means whereby to travel and to trade. But forced to live
close to water in order to survive and to develop, the relationship has not always been peaceful or beneficial. In fact, it has been quite the contrary. What has essentially been a necessity for survival has turned out in many instances to have a very destructive and life-threatening side.
C - i
Through the ages, great floods alternated with long periods of drought have assaulted people and their environment, hampering their fragile fight for survival. The dramatic changes to the environment that are now a feature of our daily news are not exactly new: fields that were once lush and fertile are now barren; lakes and rivers that were once teeming with life are now long gone; savannah has been turned to desert. What perhaps is new is our naive wonder when faced with the forces of nature.
D - v
Today, we are more aware of climatic changes around the world. Floods in far-flung places are instant news for the whole world. Perhaps these events make us feel better as we face the destruction of our own property by floods and other natural disasters.

*Vocabulary notes:
element (n): nguyên tố, nhân tố
to be set to : to be ready to
ambiguous (adj) ~ unclear
alternate (v): thay đổi
hamper (v): gây khó khăn
teem with sth: có số lượng lớn cái gì
far-flung (adj): xa xôi
 
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IELTS READING (3)


Trong bài hôm nay chúng ta sẽ tìm hiểu về một dạng câu hỏi mới nhé. Dạng câu hỏi mình sẽ giới thiệu với mọi người hôm nay là matching paragraph information. Đối với dạng bài này, các thông tin đưa ra ở câu hỏi sẽ được paraphrase khác với dạng trong đoạn văn gốc, vì vậy nó khó ở chỗ bạn cần hiểu rõ thông tin đó và những từ khoá tương đương. Với dạng bài này, mình thường làm theo những bước như sau:

- Đầu tiên, đọc qua các câu hỏi để xác định thông tin cần tìm
- Sau đó, mình sẽ đọc từng đoạn văn một để ghép với thông tin trong câu hỏi. Nhiều người sẽ đọc lướt để kiếm thông tin theo từng câu hỏi một nhưng mình thì thường sẽ đọc một đoạn văn sau đó ghép tất cả thông tin tìm thấy trong đoạn văn đó.
- Những điều cần lưu ý:
+ Đáp án không xuất hiện theo thứ tự nhất định nào cả, thông tin thường rải rác nên thông tin của câu hỏi trước không nhất thiết phải nằm trước thông tin của câu hỏi sau
+ Không phải đoạn văn nào cũng xuất hiện trong đáp án
+ Nếu bạn không hợp với việc đoạn theo đoạn văn như mình thì hãy xem câu hỏi nào dễ tìm thông tin nhất và bắt đầu từ đó nhé
+ Đặc biệt chú ý đến các từ đồng nghĩa

Bây giờ hãy thử sức với một số câu hỏi nhỏ sau nhé.

Amundsen’s Expedition to the South Pole

A )
The first expedition to reach the geographic South Pole was led by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen. He and four others arrived at the pole on 14 December 1911, five weeks ahead of a British party led by Robert Falcon Scott as part of the Terra Nova Expedition. Amundsen and his team returned safely to their base, and later learned that Scott and his four companions had died on their return journey.

B ) Amundsen’s plans had focused on the Arctic and the conquest of the North Pole by means of an extended drift in an icebound ship. He obtained the use of Fridtjof Nansen’s polar exploration ship Fram, and undertook extensive fundraising. Preparations for this expedition were disrupted when, in 1909, the rival American explorers Frederick Cook and Robert E. Peary each claimed to have reached the North Pole. Amundsen then changed his plan and began to prepare for a conquest of the South Pole; uncertain of the extent to which the public and his backers would support him, he kept this revised objective secret. When he set out in June 1910, even most of his crew believed they were embarking on an Arctic drift.

C ) The expedition’s success was widely applauded. The story of Scott’s heroic failure overshadowed its achievement in the United Kingdom, unable to accept that a Norwegian had been the first person to set foot in the South Pole, but not in the rest of the world. Amundsen’s decision to keep his true plans secret until the last moment was criticised by some. Recent polar historians have more fully recognised the skill and courage of Amundsen’s party; the permanent scientific base at the pole bears his name, together with that of Scott.

Questions 1-5

In which paragraph (A-C) is the following information found.

  1. The success of Roald Amundsen was celebrated worldwide, except in one country.
  2. Amundsen only heard about the death of Scott after he had reached the South Pole.
  3. The base at the South Pole bears both Amundsen’s name and Scott’s.
  4. Amundsen had originally planned an expedition to the North Pole.
  5. When Amundsen decided to aim for the South Pole he did not reveal his intentions.
  6. The British did not celebrate Amundsen’s success as did other countries due to the death of Scott.
 

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ĐÁP ÁN BÀI TẬP

Amundsen’s Expedition to the South Pole

A )
The first expedition to reach the geographic South Pole was led by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen. He and four others arrived at the pole on 14 December 1911, five weeks ahead of a British party led by Robert Falcon Scott as part of the Terra Nova Expedition. Amundsen and his team returned safely to their base, and later learned that Scott and his four companions had died on their return journey.

B )
Amundsen’s plans had focused on the Arctic and the conquest of the North Pole by means of an extended drift in an icebound ship. He obtained the use of Fridtjof Nansen’s polar exploration ship Fram, and undertook extensive fundraising. Preparations for this expedition were disrupted when, in 1909, the rival American explorers Frederick Cook and Robert E. Peary each claimed to have reached the North Pole. Amundsen then changed his plan and began to prepare for a conquest of the South Pole; uncertain of the extent to which the public and his backers would support him, he kept this revised objective secret. When he set out in June 1910, even most of his crew believed they were embarking on an Arctic drift.

C ) The expedition’s success was widely applauded. The story of Scott’s heroic failure overshadowed its achievement in the United Kingdom, unable to accept that a Norwegian had been the first person to set foot in the South Pole, but not in the rest of the world. Amundsen’s decision to keep his true plans secret until the last moment was criticised by some. Recent polar historians have more fully recognised the skill and courage of Amundsen’s party; the permanent scientific base at the pole bears his name, together with that of Scott.

ANSWERS
  1. C
  2. A
  3. C
  4. B
  5. B
  6. C
 

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GAPPED TEXT (1)


Hôm nay mình sẽ giới thiệu cho mọi người một dạng reading nâng cao hơn, thường sẽ xuất hiện trong các bài thi HSG. Đó chính là dạng gapped text - điền một đoạn văn vào chỗ còn trống.

Vậy với dạng bài này phương pháp làm là gì? Với bản thân mình thì mình thường làm theo trình tự như sau:
- Đầu tiên, mình sẽ đọc lướt qua các đoạn văn trước để nắm được sơ bộ chủ đề, đối tượng mà bài này nói đến là gì, và cấu trúc cơ bản của nó
- Tiếp theo mình sẽ đọc kỹ từng đoạn theo cặp, đặc biệt chú ý vào câu cuối của đoạn văn trước và câu đầu của đoạn văn sau, sau đó mình sẽ đọc những đoạn văn người ta cho để điền để tìm đoạn văn có ý kết nối với nội dung của hai đoạn đó nhất để điền vào
- Khi gặp những đoạn khó thì mình sẽ bỏ qua để làm những câu sau trước, sau khi làm xong những câu sau, các lựa chọn đã được thu hẹp thì mình sẽ dễ dàng chọn được đoạn văn đúng hơn

Bây giờ hãy thử sức với bài tập sau nhé!

Scottish Wildcat​

On my living-room wall I have a painting of a wildcat by John Holmes of which I am extremely fond. It depicts a snarling, spitting animal, teeth bared and back arched: a taut coiled spring ready to unleash some unknown fury.

1) ________

However, the physical differences are tangible. The wildcat is a much larger animal, weighing in some cases up to seven kilos, the same as a typical male fox. The coat pattern is superficially similar to a domestic tabby cat but it is all stripes and no spots. The tail is thicker and blunter, with three to five black rings. The animal has an altogether heavier look.

The Scottish wildcat was originally distinguished as a separate subspecies in 1912, but it is now generally recognised that there is little difference between the Scottish and other European populations. According to an excellent report on the wildcat printed in 1991, the animals originally occurred in a variety of habitats throughout Europe.

2) ________

It was during the nineteenth century, with the establishment of many estates used by landowners for hunting, that the wildcat became a nuisance and its rapid decline really began; 198 wildcats were killed in three years in the area of Glengarry, for example. However, things were later to improve for the species.

3) ________

The future is by no means secure, though, and recent evidence suggests that the wildcat is particularly vulnerable to local eradication, especially in the remoter parts of northern and western Scotland. This is a cause for real concern, given that the animals in these areas have less contact with domestic cats and are therefore purer.

4) ________

Part of the problem stems from the fact that the accepted physical description of the species originates from the selective nature of the examination process by the British Natural History Museum at the start of the century, and this has been used as the type-definition for the animal ever since. Animals that did not conform to that large blunt-tailed 'tabby' description were discarded as not being wildcats. In other words, an artificial collection of specimens was built up, exhibiting the features considered typical of the wildcat.

The current research aims to resolve this potential problem. It is attempting to find out whether there are any physical features which characterise the so-called wild-living cats.

5) ________

But what of his lifestyle? Wildcat kittens are usually born in May/June in a secluded den, secreted in a gap amongst boulders. Another favourite location is in the roots of a tree.

6) ________

Rabbits are a favourite prey, and some of the best areas to see wildcats are at rabbit warrens close to the forest and moorland edge. Mice, small birds and even insects also form a large part of the diet, and the animal may occasionally take young deer.

The wildcat is one of the Scottish Highlands' most exciting animals. Catch a glimpse of one and the memory will linger forever

Paragraphs​

A. The recruitment of men to the armed forces during the conflict in Europe from 1914 to 1918 meant there was very little persecution, since gamekeepers went off to fight. As the number of gamekeepers decreased, the wildcat began to increase its range, recolonising many of its former haunts. Extinction was narrowly averted.

B. The wildcat waits for a while in rapt concentration, ears twitching and eyes watching, seeing everything and hearing everything, trying to detect the tell-tale movement of a vole or a mouse. But there is nothing, and in another leap he disappears into the gloom.

C. The results, which are expected shortly, will be fascinating. But anyone who has seen a wildcat will be in little doubt that there is indeed a unique and distinctive animal living in the Scottish Highlands, whatever his background.

D. They probably used deciduous and coniferous woodland for shelter, particularly in winter, and hunted over more open areas such as forest edge, open woodland, thickets and scrub, grassy areas and marsh. The wildcat was probably driven into more mountainous areas by a combination of deforestation and persecution.

E. As the animals emerge, their curiosity is aroused by every movement and rustle in the vegetation. Later they will accompany their mother on hunting trips, learning quickly, and soon become adept hunters themselves.

F. This is what makes many people think that the wildcat is a species in its own right. Research currently being undertaken by Scottish Natural Heritage is investigating whether the wildcat really is distinct from its home- living cousin, or whether it is nothing more than a wild-living form of the domestic cat.

G. It is a typical image most folk have of the beast, but it is very much a false one, for the wildcat is little more than a bigger version of the domestic cat, and probably shows his anger as often.
 

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ĐÁP ÁN BÀI TẬP

Scottish Wildcat​

On my living-room wall I have a painting of a wildcat by John Holmes of which I am extremely fond. It depicts a snarling, spitting animal, teeth bared and back arched: a taut coiled spring ready to unleash some unknown fury.

1) ____G____ ("It" trong đoạn G dùng để chỉ "a snarling, spitting animal, teeth bared and back arched: a taut coiled spring ready to unleash some unknown fury")

However, the physical differences are tangible. The wildcat is a much larger animal, weighing in some cases up to seven kilos, the same as a typical male fox. The coat pattern is superficially similar to a domestic tabby cat but it is all stripes and no spots. The tail is thicker and blunter, with three to five black rings. The animal has an altogether heavier look.

The Scottish wildcat was originally distinguished as a separate subspecies in 1912, but it is now generally recognised that there is little difference between the Scottish and other European populations. According to an excellent report on the wildcat printed in 1991, the animals originally occurred in a variety of habitats throughout Europe.

2) ____D____ (đoạn trên nói về việc loài này đã từng xuất hiện ở nhiều môi trường khác nhau, đoạn sau nói đến lý do vì sao bây giờ loài này lại thường chỉ xuất hiện nhiều hơn ở vùng núi)

It was during the nineteenth century, with the establishment of many estates used by landowners for hunting, that the wildcat became a nuisance and its rapid decline really began; 198 wildcats were killed in three years in the area of Glengarry, for example. However, things were later to improve for the species.

3) ___A_____ (đoạn này giải thích cho phần things were later to improve for the species, là bời vì đàn ông đi nhập ngũ nhiều vào giai đoạn sau nên ít người đi săn hơn)

The future is by no means secure, though, and recent evidence suggests that the wildcat is particularly vulnerable to local eradication, especially in the remoter parts of northern and western Scotland. This is a cause for real concern, given that the animals in these areas have less contact with domestic cats and are therefore purer.

4) ___F_____ ("This" trong đoạn F dùng để chỉ "the animals in these areas have less contact with domestic cats and are therefore purer.")

Part of the problem stems from the fact that the accepted physical description of the species originates from the selective nature of the examination process by the British Natural History Museum at the start of the century, and this has been used as the type-definition for the animal ever since. Animals that did not conform to that large blunt-tailed 'tabby' description were discarded as not being wildcats. In other words, an artificial collection of specimens was built up, exhibiting the features considered typical of the wildcat.

The current research aims to resolve this potential problem. It is attempting to find out whether there are any physical features which characterise the so-called wild-living cats.

5) ____C____ (results ở đây ý chỉ kết quả của cuộc nghiên cứu nhắc phía trên)

But what of his lifestyle? Wildcat kittens are usually born in May/June in a secluded den, secreted in a gap amongst boulders. Another favourite location is in the roots of a tree.

6) ____E____ (Nói về giai đoạn sau khi mèo hoang được sinh ra)

Rabbits are a favourite prey, and some of the best areas to see wildcats are at rabbit warrens close to the forest and moorland edge. Mice, small birds and even insects also form a large part of the diet, and the animal may occasionally take young deer.

The wildcat is one of the Scottish Highlands' most exciting animals. Catch a glimpse of one and the memory will linger forever
 
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